During this period significant changes have taken place in our country, society economy, and the world at large. It is in this context that the education sector needs to gear itself towards the demands of the 21st Century and the needs of the people and the country. Quality, innovation and research will be the pillars on which India will become a knowledge super power. Clearly, a new Education Policy is needed.
The Government had initiated the process of formulating a New Education Policy through the consultation process for an inclusive, participatory and holistic approach, which takes into consideration expert opinions, field experiences, empirical research, stakeholder feedback, as well as lessons learned from best practices. In a significant shift from the 1986 policy, which pushed for a 10+2 structure of school education, the newNEP pitches for a “5+3+3+4” design corresponding to the age groups 3-8 years (foundational stage), 8-11 (preparatory), 11-14 (middle), and 14-18 (secondary).
The New Education Policy 2020 has been approved by the Union Cabinet and has renamed the HRD Ministry as Education Ministry. Also, there will be a single regulator for all the higher education and MPhil to be discontinued. During the announcement of the New Education Policy, Prakash Javadekar informed that the main agenda behind introducing the same is the need of the hour and it will prepare the students to face the challenges of the new world. The NEP will promote skill-based education and enhance the practical skills of the students.
- By 2030, one large multidisciplinary college in every district– By 2030, all higher education institutions will become multidisciplinary institutions and each of them will at least have an enrollment of 3,00 students. By 2030, be at least one large multidisciplinary HEI in or near every district. The aim is to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education including vocational education from 26.3% (2018) to 50% by 2035.
- Music, arts and literature to be taught in all colleges: Departments in Languages, Literature, Music, Philosophy, Indology, Art, Dance, Theatre, Education, Mathematics, Statistics, Pure and Applied Sciences, Sociology, Economics, Sports, Translation, and Interpretation, etc. will be introduced in all higher education institutions.
- M.Phil to be discontinued: According to the NEP 2020, M.Phil will be discontinued. The details regarding the same will be released soon.
- Sanksrit will be mainstreamed- It is time that Sanskrit will be mainstreamed with a strong offering in schools and three language formula will be adopted in higher education.
- Vocational Skills to be Taught: Every student will be taught a vocational skill of his/ her choice by the time they complete their schooling. Students will also be taught coding from Class VI.
- No Rigid Separation Between Arts and Science Curriculum: There will not be a huge difference between the curriculum of these two streams and all subjects like Music will be taught.
- Internships Will be Included from Class VI: From 6th grade, candidates will have to do internships of 10 days with local trades or crafts.
- IITs to follow Holistic approach: IITs will have to follow a more holistic approach and multidisciplinary education with more arts and humanities as per the New Education Policy
- Academic Bank of Credit to be established: An Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) will be set up which will digitally store the academic credits earned. The 4-year course may also lead to a degree ‘with Research’ if the student completes a rigorous research project within the respective time frame.
- Importance to Practical Assignments, Skill Development: The New Education Policy lays emphasis on practical knowledge and skill development which will begin from class 6th.
- Single Common Entrance Exam for all Colleges: According to the NEP 2020, there will be a single common entrance exam for admission to all higher education institutes which will be held by NTA. The entrance exam will be optional and not mandatory.
- New System of Education: The 10+2 system will be divided into 5+3+3+4 format. The New Education Policy has changed the school education system to 5+3+3+4 format. This means the first five years of the school will comprise of the foundation stage including three years of pre-primary school and classes 1 and class 2. The next three years will be divided into a preparatory stage (classes 3 to 5), three years of middle stage (classes 6 to 8), and four years of secondary stage (classes 9 to 12). Schools will not have any rigid formation of streams of arts, commerce, science, students can take up whichever courses they want.
- Ramp Up Digital Learning: To ramp up Digital Learning a National Education Technology Forum NETF will be created and e-courses in 8 regional languages will be uploaded on the same.
- Multiple Entry and Exit System: With the help of the academic bank of credits, multiple entries and exit system will be introduced in the higher education sector. This will allow students to take a sabbatical and then join back their studies after a period of time, without losing any credits. Students will also be free to choose major and minor subjects for their degree.
- India to be Promoted as Foreign Study Destination: Every institution will have an International Students Office to host foreign students. Colleges will be promoted to provide premium education at affordable costs.
- Foreign Colleges Can Set Up Colleges in India:Top 100 Foreign Colleges will be allowed to set up their campuses in India as per NEP. They will be given special dispensation and regulations to set up the campuses.
- Expenditure on Education: The expenditure on education will be changed to 6 per cent of the total GDP, as opposed to earlier, which was 4 per cent of the GDP. Both State, as well as Central Government, will be working together on the expenditure.
- The New Education Policy will give importance to students’ practical knowledge instead of just pushing them towards rote learning.
- It will help students to develop scientific temper from a young age.
- The NEP aims to make it easier to set up new quality of higher educational institutes which will be at par with the global standards.
- Since NEP will make it easier for foreign colleges to set up their campuses here many students who are unable to go abroad due to multiple reasons will be able to experience it and get global exposure.
- This will promote value-based education